Mixed Metal Nanomaterials (Nanomaterials for Life Sciences (VCH))


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Bio-inspired synthesis of metal nanomaterials and applications. This article is Open Access.


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    Mixed Metal Nanomaterials

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    Introduction

    Bio-inspired synthesis of metal nanomaterials and applications J. Huang, L. Lin, D. Figure 1. A In vivo biodistribution of nanoparticles in healthy models is size-, shape-, and surface-charge-dependent. Left panel: the size of either hard or soft spherical nanoparticles strongly influences the excretion of nanomaterials from organisms. When the diameter is up to hundreds of nanometers, NPs accumulate within lung, spleen, and liver.

    In the size range of 20— nm, NPs can also accumulate in neoplasms if present by the enhanced permeability and retention EPR effect. Under the threshold of 5 nm, injected nanoparticles are rapidly filtered and excreted by the kidneys. Glomerular filtration is similar to size-exclusive gel filtration chromatography. Panel B is adapted from ref 16 with permission. Copyright MacMillan Publishers Ltd. Figure 2. Examples of USNPs assembled in nanoarchitectures by employing polymers. A Top panel: scheme for the degradation of pH-responsive aggregates composite by 4 nm gold USNPs and biodegradable polymers.

    Panel C was adapted from ref 51 with permission. Panel D was adapted from ref 39 with permission. Figure 3.

    C Temperature curves during photothermal treatment nm laser, 2. Copyright Elsevier. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Clockwise from top-left: scheme of the production for all-in-one nanoplatforms, biodegradation of NAs in cellular environment, PA imaging during degradation in phantoms, and in vitro drug delivery of endogenous GSH-triggered cisplatin prodrug.

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    Interaction of silver nanoparticles with HIV-1 | Journal of Nanobiotechnology | Full Text

    Figure 7. Copyright American Chemical Society. We thank Dr. Coletti and Dr. Menichetti for their support. This article references 93 other publications. More by Domenico Cassano. Moruzzi , Pisa, Italy. More by Valerio Voliani. Cite this: Bioconjugate Chem. ACS AuthorChoice. Article Views Altmetric -. Citations 6. PDF 10 MB. Abstract High Resolution Image. The first medical nanosystems for the treatment of solid neoplasms were introduced to the market in the late 20th century.

    The over-arching goal of research in this field is to unlock novel combined treatments due to the unique physical, chemical, and physiological features of the matter at the nanoscale. A number of key features, among which size, payload density, combination of different moieties, surface decoration, and intrinsic behaviors make nanomaterials promising candidates for cancer applications with enhanced potential efficacy with respect to small molecules.

    Furthermore, photon—phonon coupling afford the possibility to exploit NPs for photothermal therapy PTT. To date, more than 40 nanosystems for healthcare applications are on the market. The renal pathway is a passive excretion route that relies on glomerular filtration in kidneys, whose efficiency is affected by the material size, charge, and shape Figure 1 B. High Resolution Image. This subject is beyond the scope of this Review because other authors have comprehensively reviewed the field.

    A recent and innovative advance to overcome the issue of unwanted metal accumulation is the ultrasmall-in-nano approach. Within this approach, degradable nanoplatforms composed of USNPs are developed to combine the unique properties of noble metal nanoparticles with their excretion by the renal pathway. In this review, the most significant platforms composed by employing the ultrasmall-in-nano approach are reported and discussed. Not surprisingly, all nanoplatforms are composed of gold USNPs, mainly due to gold high chemical inertness, a broad variety of surface functionalizations, and straightforward synthesis.

    It is worth suggesting that an excellent overview on PT application of some degradable nanoplatforms composed of USNPs was recently provided by He et al.

    Interaction of silver nanoparticles with HIV-1

    Ultrasmall-in-Nano Aproach. In Table 1 is reported a comprehensive overview of the nanoplatforms produced by the ultrasmall-in-nano approach that can be potentially excreted from organisms after the designed action. It is worth to notice that in only three works the amount of metal excreted from murine models have been investigated. Table 1. Within the ultrasmall-in-nano approach, USNPs can be assembled in degradable nanoarchitectures by employing polymers as assembling agents.

    These polymer-aggregated USNPs possess a strong near-infrared NIR extinction, and their biodegradation in cultured cells was investigated by dark-field reflectance and hyperspectral imaging. However, the long synthesis protocol more than 12 h , and the stability concerns related to polymer degradation could represent a severe issue for their widespread employment in clinics. Concurrently, Wang et al. In addition, their size was easily tunable in the range of 40— nm by varying the ratio of the three building blocks.

    Nevertheless, the optical response of the aggregates is in the range of — nm, far from the first NIR window, and do not differ significantly from 2 nm Au USNPs. The size of the assemblies is pH-responsive, showing reversible shifts from 80 nm at pH 6 to nm at pH These assemblies have demonstrated efficient fluorescence imaging performances triggered by aggregation induced emission AIE with a maximum emission around nm.

    The authors have also demonstrated the employment of the assemblies as drug delivery vehicles toward TPH1 cells. The pH-dependent resizing of the assemblies could represent an important concern in perspective of clinical use. Indeed, their pharmacokinetics and biodistribution would be significantly altered depending on body localization.

    Briefly, poly ethylene glycol and polycaprolactone amphiphilic diblock copolymers were dissolved in toluene together with gold USNPs, undergoing micellar self-assembly when added to water.


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    The final HD of GPMs is in the broad range 25— nm, even though efficient size-sorting in monodisperse subpopulations was achieved through differential centrifugation. GPMs 75 nm were employed as CT contrast and RT radiosensitizer agents both in vitro human fibrosarcoma cells and in vivo HT flank tumor bearing mice.

    In particular, a noticeable increase in the amount of DNA double-strand breaks ensuing X-ray irradiation was found on cells treated with GPMs. Notably, RT on mice treated with GPMs afforded a significant increase in median survival, together with a marked decrease of tumor growth. The authors claim the possibility of clearance of GPMs after accomplishment of the theranostic action through biodistribution analyses.

    This result is not surprising because of the intrinsic hydrophobicity of the USNPs employed that prevents their complete excretion by the renal pathway. Recently, Cheheltani et al.

    Synthesis of magnesium oxide nanoparticles using red spinach aqueous leaf extract

    The size of the complete nanoplatform —40 nm is controlled by the amount of methoxy-poly ethylene glycol — block -poly l -lysine hydrochloride PEG—PLL introduced during the reaction. The optical response of the assemblies is tunable in the range — nm by modifying the gold USNPs loading. However, the CT attenuation rate A similar strategy was explored also by Deng and co-workers Figure 2 D.

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